Integrated Pest Management
Pesticides are often not accessible to small-scale farmers and skill and knowledge in the sound use of pesticides is lacking. Pesticide misuse is therefore a significant health and economic risk to producers, consumers and the environment. The evolution of new races, pathotypes, strains and biotypes of the pathogens and insect-pests is a continuous process. In this context, to manage such biotic stresses, efficient and effective integrated approaches are required. Consortia within the NAIP may take up the elaboration and validation of IPM policies and practices for the minimal ecologically tolerable and economically necessary use of pesticides.